Types of Aviation Fuel



Aviation turbine fuels are used for powering jet and turbo-prop engined aircraft and are not to be confused with Avgas. Outside former communist areas, there are currently two main grades of turbine fuel in use in civil commercial aviation : Jet A-1 and Jet A, both are kerosene type fuels. There is another grade of jet fuel, Jet B which is a wide cut kerosene (a blend of gasoline and kerosene) but it is rarely used except in very cold climates.


Jet A-1 is a kerosene grade of fuel suitable for most turbine engined aircraft. It is produced to a stringent internationally agreed standard, has a flash point above 38°C (100°F) and a freeze point maximum of -47°C. It is widely available outside the U.S.A. Jet A-1 meets the requirements of British specification DEF STAN 91-91 (Jet A-1), (formerly DERD 2494 (AVTUR)), ASTM specification D1655 (Jet A-1) and IATA Guidance Material (Kerosine Type), NATO Code F-35.


Jet A is a similar kerosene type of fuel, produced to an ASTM specification and normally only available in the U.S.A. It has the same flash point as Jet A-1 but a higher freeze point maximum (-40°C). It is supplied against the ASTM D1655 (Jet A) specification.


Jet B is a distillate covering the naphtha and kerosene fractions. It can be used as an alternative to Jet A-1 but because it is more difficult to handle (higher flammability), there is only significant demand in very cold climates where its better cold weather performance is important. In Canada it is supplied against the Canadian Specification CAN/CGSB 3.23



JP-4 is the military equivalent of Jet B with the addition of corrosion inhibitor and anti-icing additives; it meets the requirements of the U.S. Military Specification MIL-DTL-5624U Grade JP-4. (As of Jan 5, 2004, JP-4 and 5 meet the same US Military Specification). JP-4 also meets the requirements of the British Specification DEF STAN 91-88 AVTAG/FSII (formerly DERD 2454),where FSII stands for Fuel Systems Icing Inhibitor. NATO Code F-40.


JP-5 is a high flash point kerosene meeting the requirements of the U.S. Military Specification MIL-DTL-5624U Grade JP-5 (as of Jan 5, 2004, JP-4 and 5 meet the same US Military Specification). JP-5 also meets the requirements of the British Specification DEF STAN 91-86 AVCAT/FSII (formerly DERD 2452). NATO Code F-44.


JP-8 is the military equivalent of Jet A-1 with the addition of corrosion inhibitor and anti-icing additives; it meets the requirements of the U.S. Military Specification MIL-DTL-83133E. JP-8 also meets the requirements of the British Specification DEF STAN 91-87 AVTUR/FSII (formerly DERD 2453). NATO Code F-34.


Aviation fuel additives are compounds added to the fuel in very small quantities, usually measurable only in parts per million, to provide special or improved qualities. The quantity to be added and approval for its use in various grades of fuel is strictly controlled by the appropriate specifications.

A few additives in common use are as follows:

1. Anti-knock additives reduce the tendency of gasoline to detonate. Tetra-ethyl lead (TEL) is the only approved anti-knock additive for aviation use and has been used in motor and aviation gasolines since the early 1930s.

2. Anti-oxidants prevent the formation of gum deposits on fuel system components caused by oxidation of the fuel in storage and also inhibit the formation of peroxide compounds in certain jet fuels.

3. Static dissipater additives reduce the hazardous effects of static electricity generated by movement of fuel through modern high flow-rate fuel transfer systems. Static dissipater additives do not reduce the need for `bonding’ to ensure electrical continuity between metal components (e.g. aircraft and fuelling equipment) nor do they influence hazards from lightning strikes.

4. Corrosion inhibitors protect ferrous metals in fuel handling systems, such as pipelines and fuel storage tanks, from corrosion. Some corrosion inhibitors also improve the lubricating properties (lubricity) of certain jet fuels.

5. Fuel System Icing Inhibitors (Anti-icing additives) reduce the freezing point of water precipitated from jet fuels due to cooling at high altitudes and prevent the formation of ice crystals which restrict the flow of fuel to the engine. This type of additive does not affect the freezing point of the fuel itself. Anti-icing additives can also provide some protection against microbiological growth in jet fuel.

6. Metal de-activators suppress the catalytic effect which some metals, particularly copper, have on fuel oxidation.

7. Biocide additives are sometimes used to combat microbiological growths in jet fuel, often by direct addition to aircraft tanks; as indicated above some anti-icing additives appear to possess biocidal properties.

8. Thermal Stability Improver additives are sometimes used in military JP-8 fuel, to produce a grade referred to as JP-8+100, to inhibit deposit formation in the high temperature areas of the aircraft fuel system.


It used to be commonplace for large piston engines to require special fluids to increase their take-off power. Similar injection systems are also incorporated in some turbo-jet and turbo-prop engines. The power increase is achieved by cooling the air consumed, to raise its density and thereby increase the weight of air available for combustion. This effect can be obtained by using water alone but it is usual to inject a mixture of methanol and water to produce a greater degree of evaporative cooling and also to provide additional fuel energy.

For piston engines, methanol/water mixtures are used and these may have 1 percent of a corrosion inhibiting oil added. The injection system may be used to compensate for the power lost when operating under high temperature and/or high altitude conditions (i.e. with low air densities) or to obtain increased take-off power under normal atmospheric conditions, by permitting higher boost pressure for a short period.

Both water alone and methanol/water mixtures are used in gas turbine engines, principally to restore the take-off power (or thrust) lost when operating under low air density conditions. Use of a corrosion inhibitor in power boost fluids supplied for these engines is not permitted.

The methanol and water used must be of very high quality to avoid formation of engine deposits. The water must be either demineralised or distilled and the only adulterant permitted in the methanol is up to 0.5 per cent of pyridine if required by local regulations as a de-naturant. In the past there were several different grades of water/methanol mixtures, e.g. 45/55/0 for turbine engines, 50/50/0 for piston engines (this was also available with 1% corrosion inhibiting oil and was designated 50/50/1) and 60/40/0, however, with decreasing demand Shell now only supplies 45/55/0. The table shows the principal characteristics of Shell demineralised water and of the commonly used methanol/water blend.



Latest OPEC oil production figures Oct 2013

OPEC oil production figures covering entire month of September 2013

  • OPEC’s crude oil production fell 110,000 b/d to 30.34mn b/d in July, down from 30.45mn b/d in
    June, according to the latest (8 August) Platts survey of OPEC and oil industry officials and analysts. A
    130,000 b/d increase from OPEC kingpin Saudi Arabia failed to offset the 200,000 b/d
    month¬over¬month crude output drop in Libya, where production and exports have been affected by
    strikes about pay and conditions as well as protesters demanding oil sector employment. Libyan crude
    output was estimated at an average 1mn b/d in July. Libya’s main oil export terminals at Es Sider, Ras
    Lanuf and Zueitina remained closed in early August. Crude exports had dropped by more than 70% to
    just 330,000 b/d. Platts in early August that output had dropped to around 820,000 b/d.
  • Output increases, albeit small, were seen in Kuwait and in Nigeria during July, where the Trans¬Niger pipeline briefly came back onstream before being shut down again after a new leak.
  • Meanwhile, output from sanctions¬strapped Iran dipped by 20,000 b/d to 2.66mn b/d. Iraqi
    production fell for the third consecutive month, to 2.98mn b/d in July, down from 3mn b/d in June,
    3.1mn b/d in May and 3.15mn b/d in April. Angolan production fell by 30,000 b/d to 1.75mn b/d.
  • OPEC exceeded its overall production ceiling of 30mn b/d by 340,000 b/d in July. The group agreed at its Vienna meeting in June to maintain the ceiling established in January 2012 but which does not include individual country quotas.

World-wide Oil and Gas Market Update Oct 2013

Oil and Gas Market Update for covering entire month of September 2013

  • POL price hike fuels Opposition’s walkout.
  • Chemtura Petroleum Additives Business Announces Price Increase.
  • Shell launch new centre at Imperial for research into fuels and lubricants.
  • Shell Breaks Ground on Indonesian Lubricant Blending Plant
  • Base Oil Group I prices in the Asian region firms up.
  • Shell Breaks Ground on Bekasi Lubricant Plant.
  • Base Oil SN ‐150 HPCL Ex‐ Refinery prices increased by 3% in September 2013 as compared to
    previous month prices.
  • Global refinery output to grow despite faltering economy ‐ Despite the tough economic
    conditions still plaguing Europe, world refinery throughput will rise as global demand for gasoline, jet
    kerosene, gasoil and diesel products during the third quarter 2013 ramps up, according to the latest
    forecast from research and consulting firm GlobalData. The new report states that demand for gasoline
    this quarter will increase by 325 mbd (thousand barrels per day) over second quarter figures, while
    gasoil and diesel demand will rise by 280 mbd over the prior quarter.
  • Myanmar region helped to improve power production ‐ Wood Group GTS has been awarded a
    one year contract worth US$13 million by a power company in Myanmar to overhaul and upgrade three
    GE Frame 6B gas turbines in operation in the country’s Yangon region. This is the first major contract win
    for Wood Group GTS in Myanmar. The overhauls and upgrades are expected to improve the total output
    of the gas turbines and provide increased reliability to Myanmar’s power production.
  • Dana Gas and Crescent Petroleum restore full LPG capacity in Kurdistan.

Russia Oil and Gas Market Update Oct 2013

Oil and Gas Market Update for covering entire month of September 2013

  • Russian origin group I Base Oil prices increase marginally.
  • Siemens secures contract for Yamal LNG – Siemens has secured a contract to deliver the key components for a power station that will
    supply the future Yamal LNG production plant in northern Russia with electricity and heat. The company
    will design, manufacture, factory test, deliver, install and commission eight SGT800 industrial gas
    turbines as well as nine stepup transformers. Four of these turbines will also be equipped with waste
    heat recovery units. The power plant will have an electrical output of 376 MWe. Located onshore, in the
    Arctic area of the Yamal Peninsula in the north of Western Siberia, the Yamal LNG project is to develop
    the wet gas resources of the YamalNenets region. Shareholders of the plant operator Yamal LNG are the
    Russian electricity company Novatek (80%) and Total of France (20%).

Africa Oil and Gas Market Update Oct 2013

Oil and Gas Market Update for covering entire month of September 2013

  • Algeria invites bids for substation contracts ‐ Work will involve supplying and installing
    substations at four locations in Algeria.
  • OMV farms into Madagascar offshore block ‐ OMV will invest in an offshore exploration block
    west of Madagascar, the Austrian firm said in a statement without disclosing the value of the deal. OMV
    will acquire a 40 per cent stake in the “Grand Prix” block from Canada’s Niko Resources Ltd. “This
    acquisition is in line with OMV’s strategy “profitable growth” to develop a balanced Exploration &
    Production portfolio and opportunities also in the sub‐Saharan African region,” OMV said in the

Australia Oil and Gas Market Update Oct 2013

Oil and Gas Market Update for covering entire month of September 2013

  • CGG completes first proprietary BroadSeis‐BroadSource 3D survey in Australia.
  • AGR secures well project contract and rig for Hunt Oil’s first operation in Australia.
  • Senergy’s survey & geo‐engineering division expands globally.
  • Dart Energy Limited announces completion of transfer of PEL445, NSW, Australia.

South Korea Oil and Gas Market Update Oct 2013

Oil and Gas Market Update for covering entire month of September 2013

  • South Korea productions of Lubricating Oil increase by 2% in July 2013 as compared to previous
    month exports.
  • South Korea Inventory of Greases during July 2013, 2527 MT.
  • TOBS FOB South Korea Base Oil prices increased by 1% in September 2013 as compared to
    previous month prices.
  • TOBS FOB South Korea Base Oil prices firmed up by USD 10 PMT in September 2013 as
    compared to previous month prices.

Singapore Oil and Gas Market Update Oct 2013

Oil and Gas Market Update for covering entire month of September 2013

  • Singapore Exported most of its Base Oil to countries like China, Malaysia, Thailand, Australia etc.
  • Singapore Imports of Base Oil from USA comprises 25% of its total imports during July 2013.
  • Bright Stock Singapore Base Oil FOB prices increase by USD 10 PMT in September 2013 as
    compared to previous month price.
  • Singapore imports of Base Oil increased by 9% in July 2013 as compared to previous month
  • SN 150 Singapore Base Oil FOB prices increased in September 2013.

China Oil and Gas Market Update Oct 2013

Oil and Gas Market Update for covering entire month of September 2013

  • China Base Oil import has increase by 59% in July 2013 as compared to previous month imports.
    China to become world’s largest net oil importer
  • The US Energy Information Administration (EIA)’s August 2013 Shortterm energy outlook (STEO)
    projects that China’s net oil imports will exceed those of the US by October 2013 on a monthly basis and
    by 2014 on an annual basis, making China the largest importer of oil in the world. The imminent
    emergence of China as the world’s largest net oil importer has been driven by steady growth in Chinese
    demand, increased oil production in the US and a flat level of demand for oil in the US market.
  • Total US annual oil production is expected to rise by 28% between 2011 and 2014, to nearly
    13mn b/d, primarily from shale oil, tight oil and Gulf of Mexico deepwater plays. In the meantime,
    Chinese production increases at a much lower rate (6% over this period) and is forecast to be just a third
    of US production in 2014.
  • On the demand side, China’s liquid fuels use is expected to grow by 13% between 2011 and
    2014 to more than 11mn b/d, while US demand hovers close to 18.7mn b/d, well below the peak US
    consumption level of 20.8mn b/d in 2005.
  • Looking beyond 2014, higher US oil production and stagnant or declining US oil consumption,
    coupled with China’s projected strong oil demand growth and slow oil production growth, suggest that
    once China replaces the US as the world’s largest net oil importer, the gap between net oil imports in
    China and the US will grow.
  • There are several different ways to measure oil import dependence, reports the EIA.
    Discrepancies in the way dependence is assessed arise because oil is imported as crude oil but
    consumed as refined products, of which crude oil is the main but not only input. Net oil imports reflect
    the broadest measure of liquid fuels and include the following elements in the volumes of oil liquids
    produced and used within national borders: crude oil, lease condensates, natural gas liquids, biofuels,
    other liquids, and refinery processing gain, which in the US has been roughly 1mn b/d in recent years.
  • Another common (and narrower) measure of oil import dependence is the ratio of net imported
    crude oil to net crude oil inputs to refineries, comments the EIA. The US has emerged as a significant net
    exporter of petroleum products in recent years and a portion of US crude oil imports is used to produce
    products not consumed domestically. The advent of China as the world’s largest importer based on the
    narrower measure occurs on a different schedule than for the broader one, but the basic trends and
    drivers remain the same as for the broader measure. However, imports of crude oil alone do not
    automatically imply domestic dependence on foreign supplies, the EIA notes.